What does it take to Build a Building?
In addition to materials such as steel, concrete and wood for the construction of a building, technology, plans, structural calculations, etc. are needed.
Architects and engineers use many different materials in their constructions and the choice of one or the other depends on several reasons.
Therefore, it is proposed to carry out a technological leap in agents present in the sector; These require new capabilities and a change in mentality that enables the development of new products and flexible manufacturing processes to obtain advanced solutions in future buildings and cities.
This technological development will be the basis for a sustainable growth of the same, and will allow the integration in the value chain of the construction of traditional industries, which will see new business possibilities for the design and development of products within this sector and that, in addition, it will enable their internationalization.
To achieve these objectives, the starting premise will be the use of more ecological materials, such as steel (sustainable, recyclable and reusable), which are compatible with factory construction techniques, constituting an ally for industrialized systems. Undoubtedly, at a time when almost everything is possible, it is necessary to do what is reasonable.
Seismologists warn that earthquakes cannot be avoided. “To this day they can’t even be predicted.”
What can be done, experts explain, is to prepare buildings so that the damage caused by an earthquake can be controlled and prevent people from dying.
“For this, it is very important to project new constructions and recondition existing ones according to the most current and advanced regulations.”
Conventional buildings are prepared to resist its weight, that produced by gravity.
“Both the seismic project of new structures and the reconditioning of those that already exist pursue the same objective: to achieve an adequate combination of lateral resistance and ductility of the building against horizontal forces”.
Strength is achieved by making, for example, beams and columns larger and having more steel inside. “Increasing only the resistance is economically unfeasible, so ductility is also used.”
Ductility is the ability of materials or structures to deform plastically without breaking. Plastic deformations cause damage and the problem is that if structures become too ductile, the damage in moderate earthquakes can be excessive.
Therefore, “the objective is to achieve the appropriate combination between resistance and ductility, it is necessary to find the balance between both properties”.
“When we design buildings to resist earthquakes, we design them in a more permissive way than against other types of loads, such as gravity, for example. Permissive in the sense that we accept that the structure suffers damage, but not that it collapses ”.
These damages could be cracks in the concrete or plastic deformations in the steel, but the structures would not collapse.
“The building would have to be repaired after a severe earthquake, but it would allow for a lifesaving evacuation, which is what it’s all about.”
To increase the resistance of buildings to earthquakes, various techniques can be used, such as adding reinforced concrete structural walls, diagonal bars, lateral walls in the columns or reinforcing the columns with steel clips.
Something very important is the connection of the beams with the pillars, so that with the movement they do not separate and the plants do not collapse. All of this is much easier in newly constructed buildings.
For buildings that already exist, a detailed analysis would have to be carried out to check what seismic resistance their structures have. “It is not the same to rehabilitate a building from the 60s made with concrete than a 150-year-old one made of stone or brick,” he explains.
After the analysis, the most suitable solution must be chosen and the possibilities are highly variable. “There are many techniques to seismically condition a building.”
A factor to take into account when adapting the buildings of a city to the risk of earthquakes is the economic cost.
In the case of new buildings, the price can be increased by around 10%, but it depends a lot on the seismic risk of the area where it is going to be built.
The problem comes with the adequacy of the old buildings. “Sometimes it is more profitable to tear them down and rebuild them.”
But this is not always possible because some may be historic buildings, which cannot be torn down or modified.
As a solution to these buildings, a technique called base insulation has sometimes been used. It basically consists of supporting the building on rubber elements, as has been done with the Los Angeles City Hall and with the Tomb of Ciro, in Pasargada (Iran). “It has actually been done anecdotally, because it is very expensive.”
Construction Process of a work
What is building construction?
In the fields of architecture and engineering, construction is the art or technique of fabricating buildings and infrastructure. In a broader sense, construction is called everything that requires, before being done, to have a project and a predetermined planning.
What are the construction sectors?
The construction sector is one of the fastest growing sectors in the economy, it is a dynamic industry and superior to other important sectors of the countries such as mining or service activities.
What are the civil works?
The thing made or produced by man is known as a work. The roads that allow the circulation of means of transport, the dams that help to manage water resources, the bridges that allow a river to be crossed and the sewers are some examples of civil works.
What are the public infrastructure works?
Public works are all construction works, whether infrastructures or buildings, promoted by a government administration (as opposed to private works) aiming at the benefit of the community. Urban infrastructures, includes streets, parks, public lighting, etc.