In urban areas, large amounts of waste are generated every day, and although they are non-hazardous substances, it is important to carry out a correct treatment of solid waste so as not to harm the environment.
These wastes are produced daily in homes, companies, offices and shops and are the result of people’s daily activity . As it is waste generated by the normal activity of any person in their usual routine, we are talking about materials that are very present in our day to day life, such as organic matter, paper and cardboard, plastic or glass.
The treatment in the management of solid waste has as its main objective reduce the risk of contamination and protect health. Between the alternatives considered, the most appropriate solution to the needs must be chosen. local technical and socioeconomic conditions, without neglecting to analyze the pollution aspects.
The treatment of urban solid waste consists of both the general collection of this waste in rubbish containers, and the selective collection of the separated waste in recycling containers.
Once the waste is collected, it is taken to the sorting plants where a specific treatment is given to each type of waste. With solid waste treatment, organic matter can be reused as compost through composting. And through some systems such as incineration, it is also possible to reduce the volume of waste and obtain significant amounts of energy.
Debris produced in homes, shops, etc., is also included in urban waste, and therefore also requires solid waste management proper And it is that the rubble must be deposited in controlled landfills and with the necessary conditioning so that the waste does not cause damage to the environment or to public health.
The of solid waste treatment is recover recoverable substances and materials, to facilitate the use of these wastes as a source of energy and to prepare the waste for its final treatment. And it is that much of the waste that we generate daily is made up of materials that can be given a second life, so the treatment of solid waste becomes a key factor in maintaining a circular economy.
But in addition to finding reusable materials, thanks to solid waste treatment it is also possible to obtain something as valuable to society as energy or fuel.
With this method, achieves a volume reduction, leaving an inert material, about 10 percent of the initial, and emitting gases during combustion. The reduction is obtained in special ovens in which air of combustion, turbulence, retention times and suitable temperatures.
The technique of Incineration is not recommended for developing countries, let alone even for small populations, with the exception of its use in treating hospital waste.
It is the system in which the organic components of the waste are biologically degradable. The product is similar to humus and is a excellent soil conditioner, but poor fertilizer. Initially, psychrophilic and masophilic bacteria (10 – 40°C) further break down the waste. This generates more heat until the temperature and nutrients limit the growth of bacteria thermophilic. Then the temperature begins to drop and the bacteria mesophilic attack again, until complete decomposition. The destruction of pathogenic organisms is achieved by maintaining the temperature between 60° and 70° for 24 hours.
Is a system of decomposition by worms, because due to their natural composition they help to release the elements essential and make them available again for plants.
The influence of this important population of earthworms can be summed up in the three functions that plays:
- Use construction and transformation
Is the transformation of waste into different products (land reclamation by landfill, conversion of organic fertilizer produced by digestion anaerobic analysis of organic waste, recovery of heat from the garbage incineration.
The separation of existing materials in the garbage is traditionally done manually, usually at the final disposal site. This last case is very common in almost all garbage dumps in large cities and even of small populations throughout the region under study. This activity the normally carried out by people with limited resources, in the daily subsistence for their families, without any control and in subhuman working conditions, without the minimum of health and social security standards. For this reason, it should avoid this practice, in favor of a complete program and with participation extended to the community.
- Layout final
The main methods of final acquisition of solid waste are:
- Discharged into the water current or the sea
- Open dump
- Open air burning
- Animal feed
The sanitary landfill is the only admissible, the aforementioned methods, since it does not represent major inconveniences or public health hazards; For this reason, it will be the only one that will be defined, since meets the requirements of the scientific method.