Monitoring Total Suspended Solid (TSS) in Drinking Water Treatment

The quality of drinking water is very important to pay attention to, especially in the processing process. One of the parameters that determine the quality of drinking water treatment is Total Suspended Solid (TSS) or total suspended solids. This is because raw material water for drinking water treatment can come from various sources, namely springs, surface water (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, etc.), groundwater (dug wells, drilled wells) and rainwater which can carry solids in the form of sand, soil, and even mud which can affect the quality of treated drinking water. Almost all industry players agree that TSS measurement is time consuming and requires a lot of additional tools. however, is there an easy, practical, and accurate way that can be used to monitor this parameter.

Benefits of Drinking Water for the Human Body

All organisms need water, more than all other substances. Humans can survive several weeks without food, but only about a week without water. Most of the cells are surrounded by water, and the cells themselves are about 70 – 95% made up of water. Other scientists have also proven that water is a component that affects 60% of body weight. Every system in the body needs water to function properly.

Water in the human body comes from drinking water consumed by humans. Drinking water is defined as water that goes through a processing process or without a processing process that meets health requirements and can be drunk directly.

Water has several functions in the body, namely regulating body temperature, maintaining humidity in the mouth, eyes, and nose, protecting body organs and tissues, helping prevent constipation, helping to dissolve minerals and nutrients, being a joint lubricant, removing waste products of metabolism that are not useful. for the body, and distribute nutrients and oxygen into cells.

Several studies have concluded that everyone’s water needs are different. This depends on several factors such as health conditions, activities carried out, and the environment in which you live. While lack of water can cause dehydration which is a condition that occurs when the body does not have enough water in the body. Mild dehydration can cause a lack of energy and leave the body exhausted.

Drinking Water Treatment Process

The principle of drinking water treatment is based on physical, chemical and biological separation of water from impurities with the aim of obtaining clean and healthy water that meets drinking water quality standards. for drinking water, better known as the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is an integrated system that functions to treat water from contaminated raw water quality to the desired water quality according to predetermined quality standards.

Each raw water contains many impurities. The following contaminants are found in raw water:

  1. Inorganic ions, such as Na + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Fe 2+ , K + , Cl , SO 42- , PO 43- , etc. Usually monitored based on the value of its conductivity or resistivity.
  2. Organic compounds, usually measured by the Total Organic Compound (TOC) content, which shows the amount of organic carbon in the water, excluding inorganic carbon such as carbonates, bicarbonates, and dissolved carbon dioxide.
  3. Bacteria, measured in number with a fluorescence microscope such as Coliform bacteria and Eschericia Coli.
  4. Endotoxins and nucleases, measured by specific enzymes.
  5. Dissolved solid particles or particulates, usually measured by filter paper.

In general, WTP consists of 5 processes, namely coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfectant.

  1. Coagulation

In the coagulation process, there is a destabilization process of colloidal particles contained in the raw water source with the aim of separating the water from the impurities dissolved in it. The destabilization process can be carried out in several ways, such as adding a chemical coagulant (coagulant), physically with rapid mixing, or using a mechanical stirring rod.

  1. Flokulasi (Flocculation)

The flocculation process aims to form and enlarge flocs (clots of impurities) in raw water (raw water) whose impurities have been coagulated, usually slow mixing is carried out and chemicals are added flocculant to increase the coagulation efficiency.

  1. Sedimentation

In principle, the process of deposition (sedimentation) based on the specific gravity of each impurity colloidal particles. In this process, there is a deposition of colloidal particles that have been destabilized by the coagulant and a flocculation process occurs, where colloid particles that are larger in density than water will settle below the surface. Currently, the coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation processes can be combined into one integrated system.

  1. Filtering (Filtration)

The filtration process is the main process in a water treatment plant. This process can use sand media (sand filter), activated carbon (activated carbon), and membrane technology (membrane process) such as Microfiltration (MF), Ultrafiltration (UF), Nanofiltration (NF) or Reverse Osmosis (RO).

  1. Disinfectant (Disinfectant)

The function of the disinfection process is to kill bacteria or viruses that are still present in the water. This process can use chemical compounds such as the addition of chlorine, the ozonation process, the emission of UV rays, or by heating.

It is not only the treatment process that must be considered, but the water quality measurement parameters during the processing also need to be considered. The summary of the stages of WTP and water quality parameters during the treatment process that must be measured and monitored

Monitoring Total Suspended Solid (TSS)

Total Suspended Solid (TSS) or suspended solids are solids that cause water turbidity, are not dissolved, and cannot settle consisting of mud and micro-organisms originating from soil erosion or erosion, and generally consist of phytoplankton, zooplankton, animal waste, waste dead plant and animal remains, human waste and industrial waste carried into the water. Suspended solids in the form of particles carried by the flow of water will affect the amount of TSS inside. The impact TSS on water quality can lead to a decrease in water quality. This condition can cause disturbance, damage and danger to humans if used as drinking water which will have an impact on health.

By taking into account the quality standards of drinking water quality, and the maximum limit of TSS in water treatment, as well as the impact of TSS on human health, it is TSS important to real time. Many methods and tools can be used to measure TSS. One way of measuring TSS in real time can be done with instrument online used is a practical, accurate, efficient and controlled way of measuring TSS in drinking water treatment.

Several factors that need to be considered in the use of online are as follows:

  1. Instruments online used are in accordance with the TSS globally recognized
  2. Easy and practical to use by operators.
  3. Measurements in real time and have data logger that is easy to access.
  4. The controller has a display with good lighting and makes it easier for the operator to read the measurement results.
  5. The controller should have a visual alarm that can alert the operator to the measured TSS threshold value.
  6. Probes Additional controller as measurement sensors should be made of materials that are not easy to corrode and are not easily scratched, such as stainless steel and titanium.
  7. Probes additional controller expected to be used at high temperatures and pressures.

Thus, TSS can be controlled using online that can monitor and maintain the quality of treated drinking water and ultimately produce drinking water that conforms to predetermined quality standards and can be consumed.



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