Waste according to the Waste Law would be all material considered as waste and that needs to be eliminated. The purpose of disposal is to avoid health or environmental problems but also, given the scarcity of raw materials and their depletion, to recover everything that can be reused.
We live in a context in which the production of waste is constantly increasing and the economic activity linked to it is becoming increasingly important.
There is a general awareness towards the recycling of waste under the principle of hierarchy that must focus on prevention, minimization, management that values the waste, before proceeding to eliminate it. This implies adopting a set of measures:
- Measures at source (prevention), before a product becomes waste, to reduce the quantity and type of hazardous substances and avoid adverse impacts on human health and the environment.
- Value contribution, through management and preparation so that the waste can be reused, recycled or other forms of recovery (energy, material, etc.)
Type of waste can be classified into 4 types of waste, including :
- By Shape or Form Classification
- By Legal Classification
- By depositing it in a landfill
- By Special Typologies
As can be seen, a single classification of types of waste is not simple. Some emphasize the origin or activity that produces them, others in their physical-chemical characteristics and others in special compounds within their constitution. However, this variability is a consequence of the fact that the final objective is to proceed to better waste management through the best existing technologies.