Chemical Waste Gases Treatment

With chemical absorption, an ion, atom or molecule is absorbed into the free volume of the absorbing phase. The process of gas scrubbing is used, among other things, for the treatment of industrial waste gases or for the removal of odours. As an absorbent, water is used and – depending on the pollutant – the addition of specific chemicals (chemisorption) takes place. In most cases, very high treatment performance is achieved.

To achieve the required treatment performance at low operating costs. We designs and manufactures various kinds of scrubbing types for different applications such as

  • Counter-flow scrubber
  • Cross-flow scrubber
  • Direct-flow scrubber

They can be installed in one or more stages or can be used as emergency units.

In addition to scrubbers, We offers activated carbon filters for the adsorption of air pollutants. Activated carbon is fine-grained carbon with a highly porous structure and a very large surface. By attachment on the inner surface of the activated carbon, harmful or odorous substances are removed from gases, vapours and liquids.

In activated carbon filters, They can be used to eliminate a wide range of harmful or odorous substances such as

  • Hydrogen sulphide
  • Indole and skatole
  • Methylmercaptane
  • Methylamines
  • Ammonia
  • VOC

Waste Gas Treatment — Pyrolysis

The process waste gases are burnt in a decomposition zone. If required, a fuel gas can be applied. Depending on the chemical composition of the waste gases, various reactions take place, such as oxidation, reduction or pyrolysis.




Wet Scrubber Treating Water-Soluble Substances

Wet scrubbing is an efficient process for the treatment of water-soluble pollutants in process exhaust gases. Our wet scrubbers are employed mainly in the semiconductor industry wet treatment system. Installed closely behind the vacuum pumps, they optimally protect the fab’s exhaust gas system from contamination and corrosion. Maintenance is quick and easy.

Biologycal Waste Gases Treatment

In biofilters, harmful and odorous substances from waste-gas and exhaust-gas flows are decomposed to non-toxic, odourless and largely low molecular weight substances, such as carbon dioxide and water. This is done biochemically by the metabolic activity of microorganisms. For this purpose, the pollutant to be separated is first dissolved and microbiologically degraded.

It must be ensured that the metabolic activity of the microorganisms used can proceed at an optimum level. It is often useful here to use other substances such as, for example, phosphorus or trace elements.

We offers appropriate system types and construction tailored to the application

  • Bio scrubbers, biofilters, biotrickling filters/ trickle bed reactors
  • Single-stage or multi-stage – for example with upstream bio- or chemo-scrubbers
  • Surface, circular and floor filters
  • Container plants as well as compact and mobile biofilter plants
  • Closed biofilter for targeted waste-gas flow guidance

In biofilters, microorganisms are settled on an organic substrate (e.g. bark or woodchips). In addition to the pollutants, this serves the organisms as a nutrient substrate. For pollutant removal, the waste gas is blown into the filter bed from the bottom to the top. With their simple design, biofilters can be operated cost-effectively in applications with low pollutant loading.

In contrast to biofilters, the microorganisms used are suspended in the scrubbing liquid in bio scrubbers. The pollutants are extracted from the waste gas and then biodegraded. Depending on the pollutant load, the decomposition occurs in the absorber sump or in an additional external regeneration reactor.

In biotrickling filters, inert substrates are used instead of the biological substrates in conventional biofilter methods, on which the microorganisms are settled. Organic and inorganic gaseous compounds are biochemically oxidised under aerobic conditions and converted into low molecular weight, non-harmful compounds which are no longer perceptible, such as carbon dioxide and water. The laden waste gas flows through the substrate in cross, counter and direct flow with respect to the trickling liquid.

Electrostatic Collection of Micro and Nanoparticles

Electrostatic filters use an electric field to clean process waste gases from particles. Our systems filter micro and nanoparticle-containing or aerosol-containing process waste gases as they occur.

For the treatment of condensable organic compounds, we offer an electrostatic condensate separator.

Non Hazardous Waste

Industrial Materials

Common industrial materials that are considered non hazardous in most states include ash, sludges, antifreeze, grinding dusts and liquids contaminated with non-hazardous chemicals.

One material that differs in designation from state to state is asbestos. While in some states, asbestos is considered non hazardous, in the state of California, asbestos is considered to be hazardous.

Medical Waste

Many types of medical waste are considered hazardous. However, the majority of medical waste (85%) is not classified as hazardous.

Examples of non hazardous medical waste include plastic packaging, clean glass and plastic, paper and cardboard, and office products. Many medical products and treatments are stored in aerosol cans. In California, aerosol cans are not considered hazardous waste as long as they are completely depleted.

Electronic Waste

California has some of the most strict e-waste laws on the books. However, there are some forms of electronic waste that continue to be classified as non hazardous.

For example, the aluminum that is often found in electronic goods is considered to be non hazardous, as are copper and gold … two materials often found in computer parts. Plastic and glass parts are generally not hazardous as well.

However, because many of the examples above refer to parts, and not the electronic device as a whole, it can be difficult and time consuming to separate the non hazardous parts from the hazardous parts. It is usually better to simply recycle electronic waste at a facility that will accept your equipment.

 Identifying Non Hazardous Waste

Correctly identifying whether a waste is hazardous or non hazardous is one of the most important aspects of ensuring your company is meeting all local, state and federal regulations.

After all, before you can determine how to store and dispose of a waste, proper identification is necessary.

While some non hazardous waste is easier to identify than others, lab chemical waste and medical waste can be more difficult. Especially when working with waste such as this, it is critical to partner with a reputable disposal company that will identify wastes through sampling and testing so you can be certain the waste you generate is taken care of properly.

Once a waste is identified, the disposal company can then certify that waste as non hazardous, reducing your risk of running into trouble with authorities during the disposal process.

The best disposal companies will be able to assist you in differentiating between non hazardous waste and non-RCRA hazardous waste. RCRA, or the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, is a federal public law that oversees the management of both hazardous and non hazardous waste.

While one type of waste may be considered non-RCRA hazardous waste, that waste may be considered hazardous waste under state laws. For example, the only type of e-waste that is restricted under the RCRA is the disposal of cathode ray tubes (CRTs), which are typically found in TVs and computer monitors.

Disposal Of Non Hazardous Waste

Although you have identified your waste as non hazardous, proper disposal of that waste is just as important, even if it has not been deemed an immediate public threat. For example, any type of waste can be harmful to the environment through other means, such as methane emissions during decomposition.

Non hazardous waste can typically be disposed of three different ways.

  1. Taken To A Disposal Site

Depending on the amount of non hazardous waste you need to dispose of, you may be able to simply take it to a Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) or landfill. However, check with the disposal facility first to determine whether it accepts your waste and the quantity allowed.

  1. Recycle Your Waste

Depending on the type of non-hazardous waste your facility produces, a recycling facility may accept it. CalRecycle, California’s recycling and waste management program, oversees the recycling of several types of waste that businesses and facilities produce. This includes materials such as electronic waste, paint, organic material and beverage containers.

  1. Work With A Disposal Company

As mentioned above, working with a reputable non hazardous waste disposal company can provide many benefits, from waste identification to waste certification. A waste disposal company will also ensure your waste is properly disposed of according to all appropriate regulations.

For those who routinely generate non hazardous waste, working with a reputable disposal company can provide peace of mind that all cradle to grave requirements are being met as well. These specific regulations state that your company is responsible for all waste from the moment it is generated to the moment it is disposed of.

This places the burden on you to ensure your waste does not pose a threat to the community, and a certified non hazardous waste disposal company can work with you to make sure your company meets those requirements so that you can focus on the day-to-day operations of your business.


Sewage Characteristics

Types of sewage

There are three types of wastewater, or sewage: domestic sewage, industrial sewage, and storm sewage. Domestic sewage carries used water from houses and apartments; it is also called sanitary sewage. Industrial sewage is used water from manufacturing or chemical processes. Storm sewage, or storm water, is runoff from precipitation that is collected in a system of pipes or open channels.

Domestic sewage is slightly more than 99.9 percent water by weight. The rest, less than 0.1 percent, contains a wide variety of dissolved and suspended impurities. Although amounting to a very small fraction of the sewage by weight, the nature of these impurities and the large volumes of sewage in which they are carried make disposal of domestic wastewater a significant technical problem. The principal impurities are putrescible organic materials and plant nutrients, but domestic sewage is also very likely to contain disease-causing microbes. Industrial wastewater usually contains specific and readily identifiable chemical compounds, depending on the nature of the industrial process. Storm sewage carries organic materials, suspended and dissolved solids, and other substances picked up as it travels over the ground.

Principal Pollutants

Organic material

The amount of putrescible organic material in sewage is indicated by the biochemical oxygen demand, or BOD; the more organic material there is in the sewage, the higher the BOD, which is the amount of oxygen required by microorganisms to decompose the organic substances in sewage. It is among the most important parameters for the design and operation of sewage treatment plants. Industrial sewage may have BOD levels many times that of domestic sewage. The BOD of storm sewage is of particular concern when it is mixed with domestic sewage in combined sewerage systems.

Dissolved oxygen is an important water quality factor for lakes and rivers. The higher the concentration of dissolved oxygen, the better the water quality. When sewage enters a lake or stream, decomposition of the organic materials begins. Oxygen is consumed as microorganisms use it in their metabolism. This can quickly deplete the available oxygen in the water. When the dissolved oxygen levels drop too low, trout and other aquatic species soon perish. In fact, if the oxygen level drops to zero, the water will become septic. Decomposition of organic compounds without oxygen causes the undesirable odours usually associated with septic or putrid conditions.

Suspended solids

Another important characteristic of sewage is suspended solids. The volume of sludge produced in a treatment plant is directly related to the total suspended solids present in the sewage. Industrial and storm sewage may contain higher concentrations of suspended solids than domestic sewage. The extent to which a treatment plant removes suspended solids, as well as BOD, determines the efficiency of the treatment process.

Plant nutrients

Domestic sewage contains compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, two elements that are basic nutrients essential for the growth of plants. In lakes, excessive amounts of nitrates and phosphates can cause the rapid growth of algae. Algal blooms, often caused by sewage discharges, accelerate the natural aging of lakes in a process called eutrophication.


Domestic sewage contains many millions of microorganisms per gallon. Most are coliform bacteria from the human intestinal tract, and domestic sewage is also likely to carry other microbes. Coliforms are used as indicators of sewage pollution. A high coliform count usually indicates recent sewage pollution.


Rotating Biologycal Contactor (RBC)

RBC or Rotating Biological Contactor is a liquid waste treatment process using a method in which this wastewater treatment unit rotates with a center on an axis or axle which is driven by a motor drive system and/or air blowing (air drive system) from a diffuser immersed in wastewater. , under media. Made of plastic, the media for attachment of microbes is installed in such a way that there is the widest possible contact with waste water and oxygen that occurs alternately. Where the method involves contact with biological elements in rotation or rotation.

RBC is like a collection of discs where on the surface there is a disk media as a place for microorganisms to eat the organic matter content in the waste, it is cultivated that the disk media can be provided as widely as possible so that microorganisms can easily take pollutants in the flowing waste. The RBC operating system uses microorganisms to eat organic matter. Microorganisms need food and O2 to survive. So that the RBC is set like a spinning wheel so that when it is below the microorganism can take food while it can process it by taking oxygen first when it is above. However, it should also be noted that if RBC has been used for a long time on the surface of the disk media, large piles of microorganisms will form due to the growth of MO (microorganisms). if this MO continues to pile up, then the MO in the lowest pile that lives is only an aerobic MO because it is covered by the MO above it. so sometimes it forms like a crust.

RBC Working Principles

The working principle of wastewater treatment with RBC is that wastewater containing organic pollutants is contacted with a layer of micro-organisms (microbial film) attached to the surface of the media in a reactor. The media where the biological film is attached is in the form of a disk (disk) made of lightweight polymer or plastic and arranged in a row on an axis to form a module or package, then the module is rotated slowly in a state partially immersed in flowing wastewater. continuously into the reactor.

In this way micro-organisms such as bacteria, algae, protozoa, fungi, and others grow attached to the surface of the rotating medium forming a layer consisting of micro-organisms called biofilm (biological layer). Micro-organisms will decompose or take organic compounds in water and take oxygen dissolved in water or from the air for their metabolic processes, so that the content of organic compounds in wastewater is reduced.

When the biofilm attached to the medium in the form of a thin disc is immersed in wastewater, micro-organisms absorb organic compounds present in the wastewater flowing on the surface of the biofilm, and when the biofilm is above the water surface, the micro-organisms absorb oxygen from the surface of the biofilm. air or oxygen dissolved in water to decompose organic compounds. The energy resulting from the decomposition of organic compounds is used by micro-organisms for the process of reproduction or metabolism.

Compounds resulting from the metabolic processes of these micro-organisms will come out of the biofilm and be carried away by the flow of water or in the form of gas and will be dispersed into the air through the cavities in the medium, while suspended solids (SS) will be retained on the surface of the biological layer (biofilm). ) and will decompose into water-soluble forms.

The growth of these micro-organisms or biofilms is getting thicker and thicker, until finally due to gravity some of it will peel off from the medium and be carried out by the water flow. Furthermore, micro-organisms on the surface of the medium will grow again by itself until an equilibrium occurs according to the content of organic compounds present in the wastewater.

Aplication of Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC)

The performance of the RBC depends also on the number of compartments. One module can contain four or five compartments. In the first compartment, backflow can be added to the initial settling unit so that the conditions are not too anaerobic so that the bad smell is reduced while helping the dynamics of microbial growth. Likewise, in the final compartment a backflow to the initial settling unit may be installed for the same purpose. Generally, the RBC contact medium is submerged in wastewater as high as 40% of its diameter. The rotation speed is between 1 – 3 revolutions per minute. This rotation provides sufficient energy for the hydraulic force to dislodge the biofilm and the water flow is turbulent so that the solid remains suspended (does not settle). The hydraulic residence time in each module is relatively short, ie 20 minutes at normal load. Each stage or module tends to operate as a completely stirred reactor.

Regarding the microbial adhesive media, there are several materials that can be used. What is often chosen is HDPE (high-density polyethylene) plastic media with a diameter of 2-4 m, with a thickness of up to 10 mm. The form of media can be in the form of plates but can also be in the form of pipes or tubes mounted on an iron shaft with a span of up to 8 m. The media along with the shaft and the motor is called a module that keeps on rotating in the tub. Several modules can be installed in series or parallel according to the discharge requirements of the treated wastewater. Usually the modules are separated by a baffle to avoid short circuiting in the tank. RBC performance is also influenced by wastewater temperature, influent substrate concentration, hydraulic residence time, ratio of tank volume to media surface area, media rotation speed, and dissolved oxygen.

Generally, to treat RBC domestic wastewater, it does not require microbial seeding. This is because the microbes are already available in sufficient quantities to start the process. Approximately a week to two weeks after starting the processing, on the surface of the media will stick biomass with a thickness of 1-4 mm. This thickness depends on the strength of the wastewater and the rotational speed of the adhesive medium. According to Antonie, 1978, the concentration of these microbes reached 50,000 – 100,000 mg/l, a very high amount so that quite a lot of organic pollutants and nitrogen were removed with the help of dissolved oxygen.

Waste Treatment Process with RBC

In general, the wastewater treatment process with the RBC system consists of a sand separator, initial settling basin, flow control tank, rotary biological reactor/contactor (RBC), final settling basin, chlorination tank, and a sludge treatment unit.

Sand Separator Tub. Wastewater flows quietly into a sand separator, so that dirt in the form of sand or coarse silt can be deposited. Meanwhile, floating dirt such as garbage, plastic, cloth waste and others are stuck in the screen installed at the inlet of the sand separator pool.

Early Sediment Tub. From the separator/sand settler tank, wastewater is drained to the initial sealing tank. In this initial settling tank mud or suspended solids mostly settle. The residence time in the initial sealing tank is 2 – 4 hours, and the sediment that has settled is collected and pumped into the sludge deposition tank.

Flow Control Body. If the wastewater flow rate exceeds the planning capacity, the excess wastewater discharge is channeled to a flow control tank for temporary storage. When the flow rate is low, the wastewater in the control tank is pumped into the initial settling basin together with the new wastewater according to the desired discharge.

Biological contactor (reactor) Swivel. In this contactor bath, the medium is a thin disk (disk) of polymer or plastic material in large quantities, which is attached or assembled on a shaft, rotated slowly in a state partially immersed in the wastewater. The residence time in the contactor bath is approximately 2.5 hours. Under such conditions, micro-organisms will grow on the surface of the rotating medium, forming a biological film. The biological film consists of various types/spicies of micro-organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and others. Micro-organisms that grow on the surface of this media will decompose organic compounds in the wastewater. The biological layer is getting thicker and thicker because of the gravity it will peel off by itself and the organic mud will be carried away by the water flow out. Furthermore, the biological layer will grow and develop again on the surface of the media by itself.

Final Precipitation Tub. The wastewater that comes out of the contactor (reactor) tank is then channeled to the final settling basin, with a settling time of about 3 hours. Compared to the activated sludge process, the sludge from RBC is easier to settle, because it is larger in size and heavier. The runoff water (over flow) from the final settling basin is relatively clear, then it is flowed into the chlorination tank. Meanwhile, the sludge that settles at the bottom of the tank is pumped to the sludge concentration tank together with the mud from the initial settling basin.

Chlorination tub. Treated water or runoff water from the final settling basin still contains coli bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, or viruses that have the potential to infect the surrounding community. To overcome this, the wastewater that comes out of the final settling basin is channeled into a chlorination tank to kill pathogenic micro-organisms present in the water. In the chlorination tank, the wastewater is spiked with chlorine compounds with a certain dose and contact time so that all pathogenic micro-organisms can be killed. Furthermore, from the chlorination tank, wastewater can be discharged into water bodies.

Mud Concentration Tub. Sludge from the initial settling basin and the final settling basin is collected in a sludge concentration basin. In the tank, the mud is stirred slowly and then concentrated by allowing it to stand for about 25 hours so that the mud settles, then the supernatant water at the top is flowed into the initial settling basin, while the concentrated mud is pumped into the mud dryer or accommodated in the tank. separately and periodically sent to a sludge treatment center elsewhere.

Reaction on RBC

In the RBC process, there are several reactions that occur, namely:
1. Oxidation
2. Nitrification
3. Denitrification

This is described as follows. Organic material contained in the waste then takes oxygen so that there is a reaction between organic matter, O2 and nutrients (usually already contained in the waste) in the metabolic process and then NH3, CO2, C5H7HO2 (new cells) are released into the air.

In addition to the above process, there is endogenous respiration to obtain energy, namely:

C5H7HO2 + O2   –>>    5CO2   +   H2O   +   Energy

in the nitrification of waste has a pollutant containing ammonia NH4 which smells very pungent. with the following reaction:

2NH4   +   O2 (with the help of nitrosomonas)  —>>   2NO2 + 4H + 2H2O

Total Suspended Solid (TSS)

Total suspended solids (TSS) are residues of total solids retained by a sieve with a maximum particle size of 2μm or larger than the colloid particle size. TSS includes mud, clay, metal oxides, sulfides, algae, bacteria and fungi. TSS is generally removed by flocculation and filtration.

TSS contributes to turbidity by limiting light penetration for photosynthesis and visibility in waters. So that the turbidity value cannot be converted to the TSS value. Turbidity is the tendency of the sample size to scatter light. While scattering is produced by the presence of suspended particles in the sample. Turbidity is purely an optical property.

The pattern and intensity of the distribution will differ due to changes in the size and shape of the particles and matter. A sample containing 1,000 mg/L of fine talcum powder will give a different turbidity reading than a sample containing 1,000 mg/L. coarsely ground talc. The two samples will also have different turbidity readings than samples containing 1,000 mg/L ground pepper. Although the three samples contain the same TSS value.

The difference between total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) is based on the screening procedure. Solids are always measured as dry weight and the drying procedure must be observed to avoid errors caused by retained moisture or material loss due to evaporation or oxidation.

Analysis TSS is as follows the homogeneous test sample was filtered with filter paper that had been weighed. The residue retained on the filter is dried to a constant weight at a temperature of 103ºC to 105ºC. The increase in sieve weight represents the total suspended solids (TSS). If suspended solids obstruct the filter and prolong filtration, it is necessary to increase the diameter of the filter pores or reduce the volume of the test sample. To obtain the TSS estimate, the difference between total dissolved solids and total solids was calculated.

TSS (mg/L) = (A-B) X 1000 / V

With understanding

A = weight of filter paper + dry residue (mg)

B = weight of filter paper (mg)

V = volume contoh (mL)


TDS and pH in Drinking Water

Water is a very important need for life. Not only for hygiene needs, water is also consumed by the body to meet the mineral needs needed by the body. Based on the general aspect, good drinking water is colorless, odorless and tasteless. However, there are important parameters that must be measured to determine the quality of drinking water consumed.

In the process, drinking water can be produced using 2 types of water, namely surface water and subsurface water. The process carried out on water also depends on the water source used. In this case, each company must have a different water purification system, but in general the process is carried out as follows:

  1. Sedimentation/ flocculation

This stage is the stage of clumping (coagulation) of small particles contained in the water source so as to form a larger particle so that it is easy to filter later. For the formation of this coagulant / flocculant requires additional substances in the form of aluminum salts or ferric salts.

  1. Filtering

At this stage, the water that has been taken from the source is filtered using several materials and several filtering steps. This filtering step can consist of filter, pre-filter and final filter. The purpose of this stage is to remove fine impurities and harmful ions present in the source water. The materials used are sand (sand filter), ion exchange filter and activated carbon. At this stage it is possible for the processed water to be more easily disinfected.

  1. Sterilization

This process is the stage of eliminating microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and others. At this stage, ozone is applied to treated water which is intended to kill bacteria, viruses and microbes present in the water or better known as the ozonation process. In addition, some companies still use chlorine as a disinfectant. This stage can also be done by irradiating UV lamps.

  1. Shelter

At this stage the water that has been disinfected is accommodated into the reservoir. Distribution of water into the bottle via four pumps. Inside each pump there is a 0.45µm diameter filter which functions to filter all organic matter and microorganisms present in the water after the ozonation process.

Based on SNI 01-355-2006, bottled drinking water is divided into two classes, namely mineral water and demineralized water. Several test parameters that must be carried out on bottled drinking water are shown in Table 1

Table 1. Some Test Parameters for Bottled Drinking Water





Mineral water

Air Demineral

1 Circumstances      
1.1 Construction

No smell

No smell

1.2 Flavor



1.3 Color

Unit Pt-Co

Max. 5

Max. 5

2 pH

6,0 – 8,5

5,0 – 7,5

3 turbidity



Max. 1.5

4 Solute




5 Total Organic Carbon


Max. 0.5

6 Organic Substances (KMnO4 Number)


Max. 45

Some of these parameters are very important to be tested in the manufacture of bottled drinking water, one of which is pH. From Table 1, it is stated that good drinking water has a pH that ranges from 6 to 8.5. This is disclosed by the World Health Organization (WHO) that if drinking water is consumed too alkaline (pH> 8.5) it can cause irritation to the eyes, skin and tissues and even experience gastrointestinal disorders. On the other hand, if the pH is too acidic (pH<4), the same thing will happen. This is of course dangerous, so bottled drinking water is processed in such a way that the contaminants in it can be minimized and safe for consumption.

Several ways to increase the pH value are by adding calcium or magnesium carbonate (CaCO3 or MgCO3). This addition can be done on pH monitoring before entering the disinfection stage. This is because pH has an important role in the process of disinfection of microorganisms. The use of calcium or magnesium carbonate not only to raise the pH but also to enrich the healthy minerals in the water.

In addition to pH, the parameter that must be monitored is Total Dissolved solid (TDS) or total dissolved substance. If the pH range for good drinking water is in the range of 6.0 – 8.5, it is different with the TDS parameter which should not exceed 500 ppm. This is because the TDS parameter also represents the minerals contained in the water. These minerals can be classified into 2, namely those that are harmful such as arsenic, sulfate, bromide, manganese and others and those that are good for the body such as calcium and magnesium. The TDS value must be monitored because this parameter will affect the taste of the water consumed. However, the high value of TDS will cause damage to systems such as pipes and reservoirs as well as turbines. This is because TDS can cause scale on the system.

Table 2. TDS Value on Water Quality

TDS value (ppm)

Water quality

Less than 300

Very good

300 – 600


600 – 900


900 – 1200


Above 1200

Not accepted (very bad)

In the process of monitoring these two parameters, a tool is needed that can meet the needs of the range for drinking water applications, easy to use and very flexible to be brought to the field or for laboratory checking scale.


Monitoring Total Suspended Solid (TSS) in Drinking Water Treatment

The quality of drinking water is very important to pay attention to, especially in the processing process. One of the parameters that determine the quality of drinking water treatment is Total Suspended Solid (TSS) or total suspended solids. This is because raw material water for drinking water treatment can come from various sources, namely springs, surface water (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, etc.), groundwater (dug wells, drilled wells) and rainwater which can carry solids in the form of sand, soil, and even mud which can affect the quality of treated drinking water. Almost all industry players agree that TSS measurement is time consuming and requires a lot of additional tools. however, is there an easy, practical, and accurate way that can be used to monitor this parameter.

Benefits of Drinking Water for the Human Body

All organisms need water, more than all other substances. Humans can survive several weeks without food, but only about a week without water. Most of the cells are surrounded by water, and the cells themselves are about 70 – 95% made up of water. Other scientists have also proven that water is a component that affects 60% of body weight. Every system in the body needs water to function properly.

Water in the human body comes from drinking water consumed by humans. Drinking water is defined as water that goes through a processing process or without a processing process that meets health requirements and can be drunk directly.

Water has several functions in the body, namely regulating body temperature, maintaining humidity in the mouth, eyes, and nose, protecting body organs and tissues, helping prevent constipation, helping to dissolve minerals and nutrients, being a joint lubricant, removing waste products of metabolism that are not useful. for the body, and distribute nutrients and oxygen into cells.

Several studies have concluded that everyone’s water needs are different. This depends on several factors such as health conditions, activities carried out, and the environment in which you live. While lack of water can cause dehydration which is a condition that occurs when the body does not have enough water in the body. Mild dehydration can cause a lack of energy and leave the body exhausted.

Drinking Water Treatment Process

The principle of drinking water treatment is based on physical, chemical and biological separation of water from impurities with the aim of obtaining clean and healthy water that meets drinking water quality standards. for drinking water, better known as the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is an integrated system that functions to treat water from contaminated raw water quality to the desired water quality according to predetermined quality standards.

Each raw water contains many impurities. The following contaminants are found in raw water:

  1. Inorganic ions, such as Na + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Fe 2+ , K + , Cl , SO 42- , PO 43- , etc. Usually monitored based on the value of its conductivity or resistivity.
  2. Organic compounds, usually measured by the Total Organic Compound (TOC) content, which shows the amount of organic carbon in the water, excluding inorganic carbon such as carbonates, bicarbonates, and dissolved carbon dioxide.
  3. Bacteria, measured in number with a fluorescence microscope such as Coliform bacteria and Eschericia Coli.
  4. Endotoxins and nucleases, measured by specific enzymes.
  5. Dissolved solid particles or particulates, usually measured by filter paper.

In general, WTP consists of 5 processes, namely coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfectant.

  1. Coagulation

In the coagulation process, there is a destabilization process of colloidal particles contained in the raw water source with the aim of separating the water from the impurities dissolved in it. The destabilization process can be carried out in several ways, such as adding a chemical coagulant (coagulant), physically with rapid mixing, or using a mechanical stirring rod.

  1. Flokulasi (Flocculation)

The flocculation process aims to form and enlarge flocs (clots of impurities) in raw water (raw water) whose impurities have been coagulated, usually slow mixing is carried out and chemicals are added flocculant to increase the coagulation efficiency.

  1. Sedimentation

In principle, the process of deposition (sedimentation) based on the specific gravity of each impurity colloidal particles. In this process, there is a deposition of colloidal particles that have been destabilized by the coagulant and a flocculation process occurs, where colloid particles that are larger in density than water will settle below the surface. Currently, the coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation processes can be combined into one integrated system.

  1. Filtering (Filtration)

The filtration process is the main process in a water treatment plant. This process can use sand media (sand filter), activated carbon (activated carbon), and membrane technology (membrane process) such as Microfiltration (MF), Ultrafiltration (UF), Nanofiltration (NF) or Reverse Osmosis (RO).

  1. Disinfectant (Disinfectant)

The function of the disinfection process is to kill bacteria or viruses that are still present in the water. This process can use chemical compounds such as the addition of chlorine, the ozonation process, the emission of UV rays, or by heating.

It is not only the treatment process that must be considered, but the water quality measurement parameters during the processing also need to be considered. The summary of the stages of WTP and water quality parameters during the treatment process that must be measured and monitored

Monitoring Total Suspended Solid (TSS)

Total Suspended Solid (TSS) or suspended solids are solids that cause water turbidity, are not dissolved, and cannot settle consisting of mud and micro-organisms originating from soil erosion or erosion, and generally consist of phytoplankton, zooplankton, animal waste, waste dead plant and animal remains, human waste and industrial waste carried into the water. Suspended solids in the form of particles carried by the flow of water will affect the amount of TSS inside. The impact TSS on water quality can lead to a decrease in water quality. This condition can cause disturbance, damage and danger to humans if used as drinking water which will have an impact on health.

By taking into account the quality standards of drinking water quality, and the maximum limit of TSS in water treatment, as well as the impact of TSS on human health, it is TSS important to real time. Many methods and tools can be used to measure TSS. One way of measuring TSS in real time can be done with instrument online used is a practical, accurate, efficient and controlled way of measuring TSS in drinking water treatment.

Several factors that need to be considered in the use of online are as follows:

  1. Instruments online used are in accordance with the TSS globally recognized
  2. Easy and practical to use by operators.
  3. Measurements in real time and have data logger that is easy to access.
  4. The controller has a display with good lighting and makes it easier for the operator to read the measurement results.
  5. The controller should have a visual alarm that can alert the operator to the measured TSS threshold value.
  6. Probes Additional controller as measurement sensors should be made of materials that are not easy to corrode and are not easily scratched, such as stainless steel and titanium.
  7. Probes additional controller expected to be used at high temperatures and pressures.

Thus, TSS can be controlled using online that can monitor and maintain the quality of treated drinking water and ultimately produce drinking water that conforms to predetermined quality standards and can be consumed.



Industrial Waste

Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, mills, and mining operations. Types of industrial waste include dirt and gravel, masonry and concrete, scrap metal, oil, solvents, chemicals, scrap lumber, even vegetable matter from restaurants. Industrial waste may be solid, semi-solid or liquid in form. It may be hazardous waste (some types of which are toxic) or non-hazardous waste. Industrial waste may pollute the nearby soil or adjacent water bodies, and can contaminate groundwater, lakes, streams, rivers or coastal waters. Industrial waste is often mixed into municipal waste, making accurate assessments difficult. Most countries have enacted legislation to deal with the problem of industrial waste, but strictness and compliance regimes vary. Enforcement is always an issue.

Industrial waste is defined as waste generated by manufacturing or industrial processes. There are many sectors of industrial manufacturing that produce waste, including:

  • Various types of factories
  • Mining
  • Textile mills
  • Food manufacturing
  • Consumer goods
  • Industrial chemicals
  • Printing and publishing

Below we’ll explore different types of industrial waste, as well as what you should know about properly disposing of it to ensure you meet all federal and state regulations.

Types of Industrial Waste

Industrial waste can be hazardous or non-hazardous. Both, however, can cause substantial damage to the environment if not properly managed. Below are some common types of industrial waste that can be hazardous to human life and the environment.

Solid Waste

Though the term “industrial waste” includes several different types, one of the most common is industrial solid waste. Solid waste can be generated by manufacturing processes such as:

  • Electric power generation
  • The use of agricultural chemicals and inorganic chemicals
  • Iron and steel manufacturing
  • Water treatment
  • Plastics and resins manufacturing
  • Many of the other manufacturing processes outlined above

 Toxic Waste

Industrial waste can also be toxic or hazardous waste. If not managed properly, this type of industrial waste can cause harm to humans, animals and the environment by contaminating waterways, such as rivers and lakes.

This type of industrial waste is generally a byproduct of other materials generated at factories, hospitals and manufacturing facilities. It’s important to note that waste laws can vary from state to state. For example, in many states, asbestos is not considered a hazardous waste.

Chemical Waste

Chemical waste mostly contains harmful chemicals. This does not mean, however, that it is classified as hazardous. For it to be considered hazardous, it must have an ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity or toxicity characteristic.

Secondary Waste

Emphasis on reusing secondary materials that are considered to be non-hazardous, such as scraps and residuals that result from the production process. Examples of secondary types of waste include:

  • Coal combustion
  • Spent foundry sand
  • Construction materials when infrastructure is demolished

How To Dispose Of Industrial Waste

Improperly handling industrial waste can have harmful consequences to both your company and the community. If not properly disposed of, harmful waste can be released into the air, soil and water. This carelessness can also pose a threat to your company’s reputation and bottom line, and expose you to costly fines and publicity that your company may struggle to recover from for years to come.

Hazardous waste disposal companies offer a safer and more convenient option, and they can help with the process of disposing of industrial waste. If you generator hazardous waste, you are legally and financially responsible for it from the time it is created to the time it is disposed of, whether it is on your property or not. This is why many industrial waste generators work with a reputable disposal company to help them manage this process and alleviate any issues that may arise from the transportation and disposal of their waste – especially once it leaves your facility.

Final Note

Industrial waste is defined as unwanted or residual materials that result from industrial operations. There are several types of industrial waste, and while some is considered non-hazardous, some types are classified as hazardous. No matter, all types of industrial waste have the potential to be harmful if improperly managed.

That’s why if you generate industrial waste, it is imperative that you understand your responsibility when it comes to management and disposal. A certified waste disposal company can assist you with declassifying your industrial waste through proper sampling so you can ensure you follow proper procedures for handling the waste.





Hazardous Waste

There are several ways of classifying waste: by its nature (dry and wet), by its chemical composition (organic matter and inorganic matter), etc.

Hazardous wastes are part of class 1 and are those types of material that pose risks to public health and the environment, requiring special treatment and disposal based on their characteristics of flammability, corrosivity, reactivity, among others.

Hazardous waste is accumulated daily in homes and businesses and, unfortunately, its disposal is still carried out irregularly. Improper disposal of hazardous waste can lead to contamination of soil and groundwater. This ends up putting the health of people and the environment at risk, taking into account that a large part of this type of waste contains very dangerous chemical substances in its composition, such as heavy metals.

To reverse the problems caused by incorrect disposal, it is necessary to begin to encourage the education of the population, as well as the adequate punishment of those who break the law and put the health of the population and the environment at risk.

Waste is regulated as hazardous if it meets any of the following characteristic:

1. Hazardous Ignitable

  • A liquid with a flash point less than 60 degrees Centigrade
  • A solid capable under normal conditions of causing fire through friction, absorption of moisture or spontaneous chemical changes
  • A flammable compressed gas
  • An oxidizer

2. Hazardous Corrosive

  • An aqueous with pH less than or equal to 2, or greater than or equal to 12.5
  • A liquid that corrodes steel at a rate greater than 0.250 inches per year at 55 degrees Centigrade

3. Hazardous Reactive

  • Is unstable and readily undergoes violent change without detonating
  • Reacts violently with water
  • Forms potentially explosive mixtures with water
  • Upon mixture with water generates toxic gases, vapors or fumes
  • Generates toxic gases, vapors or fumes at pH conditions between 2 and 12.5
  • Capable of detonation or explosive decomposition
  • Classified as a Department of Transportation explosive

4. Hazardous Toxicity Characteristic

  • The waste contains certain metals, pesticides or selected organics above specified levels.
  • if it is otherwise capable of causing environmental or health damage if improperly disposed (this judgment is based on knowledge of the material).

Are considered hazardous waste:

  • Traces of paint (they are flammable, can be toxic);
  • Hospital material (they are pathogenic, they have genetic material from another person and it is not possible to know if any bacteria present or a virus can contaminate it);
  • Chemicals (they can be toxic, they can be reactive, that is, they can react with some other substance and cause a fire or be corrosive as well);
  • Radioactive products;
  • Fluorescent lamps (they contain mercury inside the glass, which is considered a heavy metal and bioaccumulates, contaminating the environment in which it is thrown, since the mercury found loose in nature contaminates other organisms causing problems for the metabolism of the that absorb it);
  • Batteries and batteries (they have several metals in their composition that can be corrosive, reactive and toxic depending on the environment)

This type of waste requires special treatment and proper management is the first step for companies to contribute to a healthier environment. Therefore, hazardous waste must not only be stored separately, but must also be transported in different vehicles, which must have an identification plate and receive a specific and adequate final disposal.

It is of utmost importance to treat hazardous waste carefully and with great attention to the special storage and disposal needs that they require. Like public and private power, each individual in society must be aware of doing their part when it comes to protecting the planet from the consequences of human consumption.